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How A Personal Locator Beacon (PLB) Can Save Your Life Rick Wallace February 1, 2021

What if there was one simple thing you could do to make a remote camping, hiking, fishing or skiing trip far more safer?

Well the truth is that there is … taking a Personal Locator Beacon, or PLB, with you.

The fact is these beacons have saved tens of thousands of lives in remote country.

But tragically, not enough people who enjoy the great outdoors know about them, or how to use them.

Every year, people die unnecessarily doing what they love when a small investment in obtaining a PLB would have saved them.

So to help those who love the outdoors, and our tireless search and rescue authorities, we wrote this guide to Personal Locator Beacons.

At Tackle Village, we use PLBs whenever we are fishing in a remote environment for safety and for peace of mind. That could be while in the kayaks, hiking in the mountains or just on foot a long way from the car up a remote valley trout fishing when phone reception is limited.


Why should I carry a PLB?

why carry a PLB

First of all, because it can save your life. If you are injured and immobile – whether that’s from a fall, capsize (if on water), snakebite or onset of illness – your PLB is your lifeline to safety. As discussed below, activating it will trigger a search and allow rescuers to hone in precisely on your location. PLBs can be bought from camping/hiking/adventure retailers or also rented from specialist outlets. Remember, these beacons are small and light, no bigger that a sunglasses case and fit easily in your backpack.

Can’t I just use a mobile phone?

In many parts of the world where people enjoy adventure sport there is little to no cell phone coverage. Mobile phones, especially in areas where coverage is poor, chew through a lot of battery life maintaining a signal and are apt to go dead right when you need them. We’ve had hikes where the phone’s battery has drained in half a day without making a call. Phones are inoperable if wet and lose battery life quickly in the cold. Plus if you are lost, even if you get through on the phone to authorities you will be unable to pinpoint exactly where you are. They’ll know the general area of course, but not with as much accuracy as they would if you had carried and activated a PLB.

How do PLBs work?

how does PLB work

A PLB – when it is activated – connects to specialised search and rescue satellites, which in turn pass that message on to emergency authorities in the country where the PLB is activated.
The best PLBs (the ones we recommend) have the ability for authorities to easily trace where the signal is coming from and provide rescuers with a precise location using the GPS (Global Position System) in combination with the satellite signal.

Which satellites do these beacons use?

PLBs rely on the Cospas-Sarsat satellite network – an international group of satellites that is dedicated to search and rescue purposes. These satellites also conduct monitoring of distress signals from planes, paragliders and other aircraft. PLBs send their signals to these satellites on the 406 Mhz frequency reserved purely for this purpose.

How do you use a PLB?

how do you use a PLB

The first thing to do when you buy, rent or borrow a PLB is to register it with the search and rescue authorities in your country so that if it is activated, they know who they are looking for. The registration info allows search and rescue authorities to be able to see where you intended going (if updated) and which relatives or friends they can contact. (In many countries, you have the ability to update your details with the key search and rescue agency prior to a trip to record where you are going and when.) The beacon’s signal and the GPS will also reveal/confirm the location of course, but maintaining an up-to-date registration helps with liaising with family and confirming it is not an accidental activation.

What beacon do you use?

The beacon we use – a KTI – operates like the majority of models on the market. It comes in a small case and is about the size of a small compact camera.
Before every trip, we test the beacon according to the instructions by unclipping the antenna, raising it and then pressing the test button. You can see from the combination of flashing lights that the beacon is working.
The KTI has a battery life of 10 years and can transmit for 24 hours once activated. It is both waterproof and self buoyant.
We bring it with us on all remote trips into the mountains and remote regions and keep it close to our body so we have it close to hand if – for example – we fall and break a limb or we are tipped out of our Hobie kayak or injure ourselves in any other way.
Just like the fish finder we use on the kayak, the PLB is a vital electronic aid to a good day on the water and gives a great deal of peace of mind while we are doing what can be a dangerous activity.
In our region, the weather is notoriously variable and the wind can swing 180 degrees and gather strength in moments. One minute you are fishing in calm conditions, and the next minute you are dealing with significant swell!

How do you activate a PLB?

how do you activate a PLB

If you are injured or lost and need to activate your PLB, you unclip and raise the antenna, slide off the protective cover and push the red button until the green lights on the unit start flashing.
This immediately sends a signal to the satellite network with our position (via GPS). The satellite network can also triangulate the position of the beacon.
The beacon will continue to send this information in short bursts to conserve the battery life. Our model will transmit for at least 24 hours.

What happens next?

Search and rescue authorities will assess the location of the beacon at the time of activation before deciding on the appropriate action. For example, if they can see the signal is coming from your home address, or in an urban environment they will likely assume initially it was activated by mistake and confirm that with you or your nominated contacts by phone.
However if it is coming from somewhere more remote, they will contact the relevant emergency services and get them to commence a rescue operation.

Is there any risk my PLB won’t work?

As we are dealing with satellites, the beacon must have line of sight to the sky. So if it is activated, for example, in a cave or in a car, the signal may have trouble getting through, or not get through at all.

What are the limitations of PLBs?

PLB’s are designed for one sole purpose – providing that signal and location to rescue authorities. So it’s worth noting that they can’t send text messages, you can’t use to place calls. They are purely an emergency beacon.

Have PLBs saved many people?

PLB rescue

Yes, PLBs are extremely effective and have saved numerous people’s lives including people stuck in the desert with only a drink bottle. A quick search on the internet shows up a range of recent rescues including a hiker in Norway, a yachtsman who’d fallen overboard during an ocean race and a paddleboarders on Scotland’s Loch Ness! He fell off in a gale – there was no involvement from the fabled Loch Ness monster.
The website of beacon manufacturer ACR includes a host of survival stories from all over the world incorporating the use and deployment of a personal locator beacon by hikers, fishermen and women, hunters and other lovers of the outdoors: These are often told in the person rescued’s own words and offer a really compelling look at how things can go wrong and how having the beacon can be truly a life saver.
According to the Cospas-Sarsat website since its inception in 1982, the system has been used for thousands of search and rescue events and has been instrumental in the rescue of over 35,000 lives worldwide.

Are more people using PLBs?

Yes, as awareness grows of the role PLBs have played in rescues and helping people enjoy the outdoors safely, their usage is growing. It is still surprising that some people aren’t aware of the service they can give – our sister in law recently attempted a four-day hike in Tasmania and it was only via me telling her that she took a PLB. As it happened, she didn’t need it but appreciated the comfort it gave her that she could get a rescue message out if injured. She rented a PLB, which is another option for people who hike infrequently and want to avoid the cost of buying a unit. There are many companies that will rent you a PLB and give you a return envelope to post it back in when you have finished using it.

How much are PLBs?

Around $300 will get you a PLB with GPS positioning. This is the kind you want to buy.

Where do you buy a PLB?

PLBs can be bought from both electronics stores and camping and hiking outlets, as well as specialists online retailers. Because they are so small, buying them online is a popular way to purchase a PLB. You can also borrow a PLB from a friend.

Can you carry a PLB on an aircraft?

While there are restrictions on lithium batteries, airlines at this point in time do not actively ban the carriage of PLBs.

How do I register my PLB?

Registration is via search and rescue authorities in your country. Here is a list of links for registering a PLB in a wide range of countries:
United States – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Canada – Canadian Beacon Registry
Australia – Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA)
United Kingdom – United Kingdom Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA)
Greece – Ministry of Merchant Marine 
France – CNES
Italy – Stazione Satellitare Italiana – Cospas Sarsat
Netherlands – Agentschap Telecom (NL)
New Zealand – New Zealand Rescue Coordination Centre 
International – Cospas-Sarsat International 406 MHz Beacon Registration Database (IBRD)


In general terms, an EPIRB is a beacon that is fitted to a ship or boat (the beacons used for aircraft are known as ELTs). These function in the same way, but must conform to higher standards and have more features than the smaller PLB.

What does EPIRB stand for?

Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon.

What does PLB stand for?

Personal locator beacon.

Trout fishing tips

April 10, 2020  No Comments

Introduction – Trout fishing 101 Trout are one the most popular freshwater angling species in the US with 7.8m US anglers fishing for trout a

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Rick Wallace

Rick Wallace

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BWCAW Open May 18, 2020!

Superior National Forest to Reopen Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness



Duluth, MN May 15, 2020 – On May 18, Superior National Forest will open the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) for both day and overnight use, which is in alignment with Minnesota Governor’s new order 20-56. For a full list of open areas and up-to-date information on re-openings, visit the Superior National Forest website media pages:


“We are happy to be fully allowing visitors into the BWCAW,” says Connie Cummins, Forest Supervisor. “We ask that visitors please continue to follow local, state and federal guidelines on staying safe and practice good hygiene and social distancing wherever they choose to visit.”


To ensure the health and safety of its employees, partners and members of the public, the Superior National Forest will continue to use temporary modifications to the permit pick-up requirements beginning May 18 for all BWCAW quota permits. For additional information on this process, please visit the Superior National Forest’s website at


Support for will continue to be provided via email until further notice. The quickest way to get help is to visit the online Help Center. You can also call the Forest Service or your local cooperator if you cannot make changes online via


Keep in mind for travel plans to Quetico Provincial Park through the BWCAW, Ontario, Canada has current closures in place.  For information on Canadian closures, please visit: and


Visitors are asked to stay as local as possible when choosing a site to visit and to pack out everything they bring, especially trash. Visitors are also urged to take the precautions recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with local health and safety guidance. For tips from the CDC on preventing illnesses like the coronavirus, go to:


Responsible recreation will help expand access to facilities, services and other opportunities. Certain services may still be unavailable, so visitors are asked to plan accordingly and to remain flexible.


Contact information for the Superior National Forest is available online at





USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer, and lender.

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2020 Voyageur North Gazette

Hi Everyone!


Just wanted to let you know that the 2020 Gazette will be going out in the mail in a couple weeks.

If you have a new address or would rather get an email copy please let us know.


Have a safe & Happy Holiday Season,

Amber & the Vno Crew

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Instagram post 2019

Aaron was featured in Travel & Leisure's Instagram story today about the Boundary Waters, thanks to his friend Ashlea who went with him. She's a big freelancer and captured some great stories of the trip.

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Stephanie's 2019 Lake One to Snowbank Trip

Hi Amber,

We completed our trip last week and I wanted to thank you and everyone else at VNO we interacted with (Lynn, John, Lucas and Big John) for being so hospitable!  We had a great time doing our Lake One to Snowbank Lake trip, and John had great tips about the desirable campsites.  Big John was at our pickup point earlier than 1 pm, which was fantastic considering we made great time and wound up there around 11:30 am!  I can't tell you what a pleasure it was to sip those cold drinks after the furious paddling we had to do in the big, windy portions of Snowbank and Disappointment Lakes.  

We look forward to coming back next year as we already miss the beauty and tranquility of being in the Boundary Waters, and the fantastic service we enjoyed from everyone at VNO.  Have a great rest of the summer, and please give our thanks to everyone!





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January Ice Fishing for the Schnitzlers


What good luck ice fishing for JP & his Dad!

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Killingsworth group 2018 Fall trip

Chris, Tom & Chuck at the start of their 2018 BWCAW canoe trip!

They saw Lynn, Amber & April at the portage from Eugene Lake to Steep Lake.

Chris was really happy that we sat and talked at the portage- said it was nice to chat & take a quick break.

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2018 Vno cleaning crew overnight trip to #14 Little Indian Sioux

Part of our 2018 cleaning crew heading out for an overnight trip!

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Riffe group 2018

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Aedan's Giant Smallmouth

Giant smallmouth explodes on the surface, chasing a top water bait in the rain. 

After 3 attempts to net the big bass he was in the boat. 

After Aedan kissed the bass for good luck he was successfully released back to the lake.


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Sophia - age 2!


Sophia Lee, just 2 years old. She really did catch her limit

of sunfish today and was only helped bring in 2 of them!

This was her first time fishing, ever! Congrats Sophia!

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Greg & Kevin 2018 Winter fishing

Greg & Kevin came up a few times again this winter!

Here are a few pictures:  Greg with 2 trout & Kevin with a nice Pike.


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Ontario Fish & Wildlife News - April 2018

Ontario Fish and Wildlife News – April 2018  
headline graphic

Anglers and hunters,

Welcome to the FIRST edition of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry's (MNRF) Ontario Fish and Wildlife News. This is your quarterly peek at how your licence dollars support Ontario's fish and wildlife resources. You are receiving this newsletter because you are a current or recent Outdoors Card holder.

Check out the topics in this edition:
Lynx    Licensing service    Fish ON-line    Moose    Muskellunge  

Did you know?

When you buy a fishing or hunting licence in Ontario, 100% of your fees go directly into the Fish and Wildlife Special Purpose Account. It costs over $100 million annually to pay for our fish and wildlife programs and services, of which the Fish and Wildlife Special Purpose Account pays for about two-thirds. Programs supported by the Fish and Wildlife Special Purpose Account include fish culture and stocking, wildlife population studies, research and enforcement.

We hope you enjoy this newsletter. Follow us on Twitter and Facebook to stay up-to-date between newsletters.

Ontario's lynx and bobcat mystery

comparison of lynx and bobcat
The Canada lynx is a classic Canadian species.This snow-and cold-loving carnivore has super-sharp vision, allowing it to spot mice 75 metres away, and an acute sense of hearing, which is sharpened by those cool ear tufts. It also has extra-large feet with toes that can be fanned out like snowshoes, allowing them to spring through the snow with ease. Snowshoe hare is the favourite meal for lynx, and historically their populations have gone up and down along with that of the hare.

Now, something else besides hare populations is affecting lynx. MNRF scientists and partners have discovered that the range of lynx in Ontario has been shrinking. In fact, since the 1970s, the southern edge of this species’ range has moved about 175 km north! At the same time, the climate has been warming and snow depth has been reduced, but scientists don’t yet have enough evidence to put all the blame on climate change.

Another possible culprit is not-so-friendly competition from bobcat, a lynx cousin. While the southern part of lynx range has been shrinking, the range of bobcat has been expanding up from the Great Lakes states into Ontario. Scientists have also found that lynx and bobcat can interbreed, although that’s pretty rare. In the future, if such inbreeding continues, it could result in loss of genetic diversity especially in lynx, the more vulnerable of the two cats.

What we are doing

To help improve our understanding of what’s happening between lynx and bobcat in Ontario and why, MNRF scientist Jeff Bowman, and partners from Trent University and the University of Toronto, are studying two possible scenarios:
  1. Canada lynx is pulling back from the southern edge of its range due to climate change (avoiding areas with reduced snow depth), leaving an opening that the bobcat is only too happy to take advantage of.
  2. Bobcat is taking advantage of milder winters to move farther north, and lynx is pulling back in response to having a savvy competitor.
So where are scientists testing these scenarios? They are focusing mostly along the north shore of Lake Huron between Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury, which is one area where lynx and bobcat ranges currently overlap.

We will report back on findings of these studies as they become available. This research is made possibly partly through funding from Ontario's Fish and Wildlife Special Purpose Account, and will help those who make management decisions about lynx and bobcat.

Renewing Ontario's licensing service

licensing service headline graphic

Fish or hunt in Ontario? Changes are coming this fall for Ontario anglers and hunters. Here are some highlights.

Updating our fish and wildlife licensing service

This November we're making updates to our licensing service. Our goal is to make it easier for you to buy fishing and hunting licences. A couple of exciting features in the new service include:
  • A single version of the plastic Outdoors Card. (Hunter accreditation will no longer appear on the Outdoors Card; it will be tracked in the new service.)
  • A Licence Summary that lists all your valid fishing and hunting licences.The Licence Summary can be printed from home but you also have the option to store it on a digital device such as your smartphone.

Future regulation changes

Next, we're making improvements to some fishing and hunting rules. Fishing regulation changes will come into effect in November 2018, and hunting regulations will change in January 2019. Here are some things that will be different for hunters:
  • In 2019, game seals will be replaced by "tags". You'll have the option to print your tag from home, making it easier to prepare for hunting season. Plastic see-through luggage tag holders can help protect your tags from the elements.
  • Reporting rules for hunters are also changing. All hunters who are issued a tag in 2019 will be asked to submit a report whether or not they hunted or harvested an animal. This new mandatory hunter reporting will replace the current mix of hunter/harvest reporting and voluntary hunter questionnaires.

Apprentice hunters

Also starting in 2019, all hunters between the ages of 12-14 will be considered apprentice hunters. Apprentice hunters will buy their own Outdoors Card and continue to hunt under the direct supervision of a mentor, with a shared firearm. Apprentices will have the option to buy select licences and tags not obtained through a draw.

Want more info?


Look no further: Fish ON-line

Close up of a cell phone showing Fish ON-line website

Are you looking for a fishing spot? Boat launch? How about where Ontario is stocking fish?

Fish ON-Line, is Ontario’s mapping tool for anglers that can get you all the information you need to plan your next fishing trip. Last year more than 400,000 anglers accessed Fish ON-Line! We continually improve the tool to give anglers across the province current information about what’s swimming in the lakes and rivers near them.

Fish ON-Line is also a great way to access fishing regulations information. One click on the waterbody where you’ll be fishing and it will show all the regulations that apply to those waters. Sanctuaries appear on the map for quick reference.

Fish ON-Line is one example of how the MNRF is using your fishing and hunting licence dollars through the Fish and Wildlife Special Purpose Account to provide you with an efficient and quality service. Other valuable contributions to fish and wildlife management include monitoring and assessment, enforcement, regulation and policy, licensing, fish culture and habitat management. We are working to continually improve your fishing and hunting experiences and make sure that you have the tools and information that you need for your next trip.
Thank you for your continued contribution to the Fish and Wildlife Special Purpose Account through your fishing and hunting licence dollars.

Moose aerial surveys

moose in the snow

If you're a big game hunter you probably have your eye on the calendar. In April the moose draw opens and by August you'll know the results. But did you know that it is the work MNRF biologists do over the winter that tells us where moose numbers are strong and where they need help? Aerial surveys are one tool we use to better understand Ontario’s moose populations.

Here are five things to know about moose aerial surveys:
  • These surveys help us track trends by estimating the number, age and sex of moose.
  • Surveys are flown in mid-winter, when moose are most easily seen.
  • Most surveys are done from helicopters.
  • We have done these surveys every year since 1975.
  • The last three years of data show that the province has about 92,000 moose.
Ontario’s moose population is generally healthy, but has decreased in some areas over the last 15 years. Changing climate, habitat, hunting, predators and parasites are some of the reasons for this decline. The results of this winter's surveys will tell us more.

Tag – you're it!

surgery to implant a tracking tag in a muskie

With spring now in their sights, many anglers are counting down the days until the opening of the fishing season for their favourite species. Muskellunge (or muskie) season dates are set to allow fish to wrap up their spawning period before being targeted by anglers. Avid muskie anglers have to wait only until the first Saturday in June in most of the southern part of Ontario, and the third Saturday further north.

Muskies are the undisputed top predator in Ontario lakes and rivers. In fact, Ontario is a premier fishing destination for muskie hunters.

One prime spot for a record-breaking catch is Lake St. Clair along the Ontario-Michigan border. But there are so many unknowns. What habitats do these muskies use? Where do they move? How long do they live?

Tag team research

In 2016, we forged a partnership with Michigan, Ohio, the US Geological Survey and Muskies Canada to answer some of these questions.

In May 2016, 20 muskies were tagged in the Detroit River. In October 2017, we tagged 19 near the mouth of Ontario’s Thames River. Another 20 were tagged in Lake St. Clair in 2017.

The tags should track the movements and habitat use of these fish for the next 7 years. We’re already receiving interesting data. For example, one athletic Detroit River muskie swam the entire length of Lake Erie in 2016!

This is just one of the many valuable programs that support effective fish and wildlife management. All are made possible with funding provided by your fishing and hunting licence dollars.
smartphone calendar

Save the date!

  • March 1, 2018: Antlerless deer draw opened and will accept applications until July 3
  • April 18, 2018: Moose draw opens and will accept applications until May 31
  • June 30-July 8, 2018Licence-Free Family Fishing Week
View the current Ontario Hunting Regulations Summary

View the current Ontario Fishing Regulations Summary

Visit the automated licensing website to:
  • Purchase Ontario hunting and fishing licences or your first fishing Outdoors Card
  • Renew an existing hunting or fishing Outdoors Card
  • Apply to big game draws
  • Check draw results
  • Submit your hunter activity/harvest report
Visit Fish ON-line to plan your next fishing trip:
  • 18,000+ waterbodies
  • Customizable fish stocking lists
  • 2,000+ fishing access points


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Greening July 2017 trip

Lynn/John -


I just wanted to thank you so much for the wonderful trip with my son and grandson!   You all made everything easy and the equipment top-notch.   Thanks to Grant for driving us out and picking us up.  I will tell all my friends about your shop and we will use you again!

Thanks again,

Dennis, Wade and little Jack GreeningGreening_boys_July_2017.jpg

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King Family 2017 trip

Couple of photos of my girls on their first trip to BWCA. They did well despite some challenging weather on the afternoon and evening of day 1. We fished, swam, explored and of course ate well during the four day trip. Thanks again for everything.


Tim and Jana King



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Winter Fishing 2

Here is Kevins Rainbow Trout from January 2017...

Image may contain: 1 person, outdoor
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2017 Winter Fishing

Greg has been come up for Ice fishing this year. He & a friend have stayed in our Loft for a few weekends.

Here is a nice Trout they caught on their last stay.


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New Gazette

New 2017 Gazette!

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Yearly BWCAW permit update

We have had a really nice fall with temperatures still in the 50’s the second week of November!  Karyn has been going through all our gear and has a nice assortment of used gear for sale that should be added to our online store in a few weeks.  If anyone is planning on visiting Ely for winter activities don’t forget we do have our loft bunkhouse available.


This winter I will be in the office Monday thru Friday 10am till 3pm to answer any questions and help you plan your next trip!  I will have some phone help from April (food room manager) & Samantha (my daughter) this winter so please be patient if you reach one of them.  You can also see John & Lynn, Jacob, Kurt & or Nick at next year’s sport shows (see our website for the updated list).


I also wanted to remind you to call in before December 15th to lock in your 2016 rates for 2017…you don’t have to know exactly how many people for your trip, or the exact dates of your trip, or the exact outfitting for your trip.  Just call to make your anticipated reservation and deposit. 


Example:  Hi this is Jane Smith and I would like to start an early 2017 reservation.  I am thinking of coming in June and probably 4 people and want to go complete outfitting.  Here is my credit card for the $240.00 deposit.
(Or we just need two canoes – deposit of $80.00)


The limited lottery will be open for applications on December 14th, 2016 through close of business January 11th, 2017. The lottery results will be released by January 18th.  


This lottery includes only the following entry points (letters D, F, and G are day use motor entry points):

·       D Fall Lake and Beyond (motor);

·       24 Fall Lake (both overnight motor and paddle);

·       25 Moose Lake (both overnight motor and paddle);

·       F Moose, Newfound, and Sucker (motor);  

·       G Basswood over Prairie Portage (motor)


The Go-Live Date for all entry pointswill be January 25, 2017.


You can give us a call at (800) 848-5530, go to our website and make the online reservation (also make a note in the comments area that you are an early bird reservation and/or a previous customer so we don’t miss any of your discounts), or email us at one of the following email addresses; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..




Have a great & safe Holiday Season!




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Non-Quota Season Rules

Non-Quota Season Rules:
A permit is always required when a group goes into the BWCAW.
From October 1 through April 30th people use the non-quota, self-issue permit form whether they are 
staying overnight or just in for the day and whether they are using a motor on the motorized areas 
or are travelling without a motor.
The BWCAW rules and regulations are the same in both quota and non-quota seasons
with these exceptions:
•     Snowmobiles are only allowed in two places in the BWCAW : Crane Lake to Little Vermilion and 
the eastern portion of Saganaga.
•     During the ice-travel season, people may camp off of the designated sites. In fact, we prefer 
people camp offsite to avoid messes created when  the snow is deep and the latrines are hard to 
•     When snow is on the ground, fires may be built outside FS fire grates. However, care should 
be taken to locate fires where fire scars will not be left behind. Charred wood should be scattered 
out of sight. The use of a firepan is encouraged.
A few rules that stay the same but are sometimes for- gotten:
•     No more than 9 people should be gathered togeth- er anywhere in the BWCAW—even at the picto- 
•     Groups must have a permit.
•     No cans and bottles.
•     If you packed it in, pack it back out.
•     Cat holes (self made latrines) must be 150 feet from any water source,
       even if the lake or stream is frozen.
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